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In 1916 and 1917, during the darkest days of the Great War, two referendums were held asking Australians to decide whether men should be conscripted to fight overseas. The issue was hugely controversial, dividing families, communities and political parties. Thousands of impassioned speeches were made, endless newspaper columns written, mass meetings and huge rallies held throughout the country. In fact the debates surrounding these two referendums have been described by some historians as the most bitter, divisive and violent ever to consume the nation. As Australians divided in bitter recrimination, it seemed as if the soul of the grieving nation would tear itself apart.

A new exhibition at Old Treasury Building tells the story of this extraordinary period in history. It is a tale of political intrigue, industrial turmoil, civil unrest and a lurid propaganda war. There were passionate idealists on both sides of the debate, but also many ordinary people who quietly made up their own minds. In the end Australians voted against conscription, despite a huge government campaign to persuade them otherwise. In a sense then, the conscription story is also a story of the triumph of democracy, amidst the most testing circumstances ever experienced in Australia.

Featured in the exhibition are posters from our collection. The posters are part of the series from the Town Clerk's Office of the City of Melbourne (VPRS 3183 P0 Units 132, 133 and 134).

Learn more on our blog or on the Old Treasury Building website. 



Old Treasury Building, Spring Street, Melbourne


Image Gallery

poster god bless daddy
Posters from our collection feature in the exhibition.


Material in the Public Record Office Victoria archival collection contains words and descriptions that reflect attitudes and government policies at different times which may be insensitive and upsetting

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples should be aware the collection and website may contain images, voices and names of deceased persons.

PROV provides advice to researchers wishing to access, publish or re-use records about Aboriginal Peoples